Tips To Learn To Be A Veterinarian

Different Types of Veterinarians

Becoming a Veterinarian

Becoming a veterinarian requires a high degree of education, comparable to that needed to become a physician. In addition to their specialized education, most individuals seeking to become vets will have completed a science based bachelor’s degree program to prepare themselves to successfully complete their veterinary program.

In most cases, a veterinary program takes at least four years to complete. As these are intensive programs that include classroom, laboratory and clinical components, there are no part-time veterinarian programs in the United States. Furthermore, most programs have extremely competitive entry requirements, making it important that any candidate be able to demonstrate his or her qualifications when seeking entry.

the United States, veterinary programs are accredited by the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA). It is important that any candidate ensure that his or her program is currently accredited, as most states will not accept diplomas from programs that have not been accredited. Students who have graduated from a foreign veterinary program must be able to show that it is equal to an AVMA accredited program as a part of their licensure process.

 

Types of Vets

 Veterinarians provide medical care to animals, just as medical doctors do for humans. Their training process is also similar, consisting of a four-year undergraduate degree and a four-year doctorate. Veterinarians can also choose to specialize, completing internships or two to four years of supervised residency to gain experience in a narrower area of practice. Several career paths are open to veterinarians.

Private Practice

Many veterinarians work in private practice, either as sole practitioners or as part of a larger group practice. There are three major types of practice, and vets might specialize in any one or more of the three. Companion animal veterinarians work primarily with household pets, such as dogs or cats. Equine vets focus on the care and treatment of horses, while farm-animal practices provide care to cattle, hogs, poultry and other animals raised commercially.

Specialists

Like doctors who treat humans, some veterinarians are general practitioners and some choose to specialize. Many of these specialties correspond directly to specialties chosen by physicians. For example, veterinary ophthalmologists diagnose and treat eye diseases and impaired vision in animals. Orthopedic veterinarians treat injuries and conditions of the spine and musculoskeletal system, including the major joints. Other veterinarians might choose to specialize in the treatment of animal populations with distinctly different needs, such as wild animal care or marine animal care.

Research Veterinarians and Veterinary Epidemiologists

Diseases in animals can have significant consequences for humans as well. Losing a pet is emotionally stressful, but an outbreak affecting one of the major food species can bankrupt farmers or damage the entire food industry. Worse, some diseases are zoonotic, meaning they can spread from animals to humans. Research veterinarians investigate the causes of animal diseases and congenital medical conditions, while veterinary epidemiologists study the mechanisms of disease transmission. Both can find well-paying careers in private industry or in government service.

Education

One of the most crucial roles in any skilled profession is education, passing along a body of detailed knowledge to a new generation of practitioners. The Association of American Veterinary colleges notes on its website that up to 40 percent of current veterinary college and training hospital faculty could retire within the next decade, creating a major shortage in the field. With only 28 colleges of veterinary medicine in the United States, and with many more applicants than program spaces, the profession can ill afford any reduction in its training capacity.

 

Types of Veterinarian Jobs in High Demand

The Field of Veterinary Medicine Has Many Jobs for Vets

Most pet owners think of veterinarians as animal pet doctors working in a veterinary or animal hospital or clinic. However, the field veterinary medicine is very board with many different aspects and jobs that a veterinarian can peruse.

 

Are there different types of Veterinarians?

Veterinarians may be employed or contracted by veterinary clinics and hospitals, government agencies, educational institutions, wildlife management groups, zoos, aquariums, ranches, farming-related businesses, or pharmaceutical companies.

The following are examples of types of veterinarians:

 Companion animal Veterinarians
These veterinarians diagnose and treat diseases or abnormal conditions in animals, most often cats and dogs. They are the most common type of veterinarian and provide inoculations; prescribe medication; set bones; dress wounds; perform surgery and dental work; offer euthanasia services; and advise clients on the general care of their animals.

 

What Specific Types of Veterinarians Are There?

 According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the number of people who consider their pet to be a member of the family is on the rise, and so is the request for nontraditional veterinary services, like preventative dental care and cancer treatments. To meet the demand of the growing and more diverse domestic pet populations, individuals studying to become veterinarians have a wealth of specialties from which to choose. It all boils down to whether they want to spend their days looking into the eyes of a dog or a prairie dog

Small Animal Practitioner

The most common type of veterinarian, the small animal practitioner, treats domestic pets. Some choose to run practices that are exclusive to cats and dogs, while others also treat small mammals, such as ferrets, rabbits, hamsters and guinea pigs.

Using Photo Booth To Make A Picture In An Event

9 REASONS WHY YOU NEED A PHOTO BOOTH FOR THE BIG DAY

Entertainment

Your guests will love it. We always have a queue to get into our booth and when guests come out they are always smiling; so much so they come back again and again! “The photobooth was the highlight of the night and everybody was really pleased with the photographs,” said one of our real brides. “Thank you for helping to make our evening one to remember!”

Suitable for all ages

“I have to say I loved the photo booth and so did the kids!” writes another real bride. “It was amazing, such a giggle and it was nice to have something the children and grandparents could join in with. I have the photos in my purse and am always showing them to people. It’s FAB! Thanks again!”

Nostalgia

Back in the good old days we never had cameras on our phones! To grab an instant picture of you and all your friends you had to walk into town and squeeze into a photo booth (normally sporting a nasty pale blue curtain). Well our booths may look more stylish but the concept is the same. And, of course, we add some fun props to make it even more memorable.

Talking point

Want your wedding to have something a little bit different? Well a photo booth from Luxury Booth will have your guests raving for weeks afterwards. “I just wanted to send you a short note to say thank you once again,” says another bride. “Everyone raved about the booth and I will certainly recommend you to anyone in the future.”

Fabulous favours

Why give a traditional box of almonds when you could have a fun photo from the day that guests can look back on for years to come? One nice idea is to give them an empty key ring with a note to go to the photo booth later! We can add a copy of their snaps to this fantastic keepsake gift.

High-quality results

Today’s photo booths boast the highest quality pictures and technology and ours is no exception. All Luxury Booths are packed with the latest professional studio equipment. We make sure your prints are of the very highest quality. So much so we are often asked to make our pictures into large canva prints so guests can display them in their homes.

Theme it!

Are you having a theme on your big day? Whether you want a winter wonderland, day at the beach or even just a colour we can bring the props to match your theme. We can even customise your prints to match and – if the budget stretches – we can even customise the booth itself!

Share the love

Not only will your guests receive a copy of the fun photographs on the night, we will also upload all your ‘clean’ pictures to your very own Facebook album! This helps carry on the fun for weeks after the big day as friends and family tag, comment and copy their pictures.

Cool guestbook

This may be the biggest reason of all to book a photo booth for your big day. Though you might not even realise we’re doing this, you will be glad your booth butler took the time to make sure everyone adds a snap to your guest book while leaving a message around the photographs. Time and time again here at Luxury Booth we are told how happy brides and grooms are with this part of our service. It’s a new twist on the traditional guest books and one that you will want to look at again and again.

 

 

A photo booth costs less than you think!

YOU GET: Entertainment. Event Keepsakes and Wedding Favors. More photos for YOU that commemorate your big day. A photo booth scrapbook that you will cherish.

 Look at how much hiring a photo booth can cover based on a typical 150 person wedding or event:

The cost to provide entertainment for your 150 guests. For example, a strolling magician or other forms of entertainment that engages the guests (in addition to your DJ). $400 to $800

Cost of event keepsake or wedding favors for your 150 guests. $150 to $600

The Cost of additional candid photos of you and your guests. $125 to $250

Cost of a standard event or wedding guest book. $25 to $100

Totals $700 to $1750 for these aspects separately! YIKES!

Our photo booth rental prices start at only $595 for our elegantly stylish services, and we even have a digital photo kiosk option for folks on a tight budget. Save hundreds, even over a thousand, by choosing our photo picture booth for weddings and events.

As you see, booking a photobooth saves you a significant amount of your event budget by combining many elements of fun and entertainment.

With its entertainment value, memorable keepsake favors, uniqueness and theme fitting aspects, photo booth rentals are one of the better areas to invest your wedding budget.

 

 

SAY CHEESE! 5 ALTERNATIVES TO THE PHOTO BOOTH

The past five weddings you’ve been to (or in our case, 1,000), have included a photo booth, right? And why not? They’re fun and give guests something to do other than eat, dance and awkwardly mingle with the people they do not know at their table. If you’re looking to be a trendsetter and tired of the same old photo booth idea, take a look at these five alternatives to still capture the memories, but in a more modern way…

  1. Polaroid Camera

Kick it old school. Rather than rent a high tech digital photo booth, set up a few Polaroid cameras for guests to grab at. Create a designated area with a prop table so people can plan their print-out pictures wisely. Have a clothesline or wall set up so guests can hang their pictures to develop for all to see before either taking them home or saving them as a token for a guest book. Urban Outfitters has been selling super cute Fujifilm Instax vintage-looking cameras in pastel colors for $100 each lately!

  1. Caricature Artist

Last year, our couple Farah and Ryan, who wed at the historic Asbury Park Convention Hall, hired Drawn Together NYC, a caricature artist that sketched portraits their guests. Everyone got to take home a funny drawing of themselves – and lurved it. If you’re having a Jersey Shore, boardwalk themed wedding, consider this festive, fitting option.

  1. Selfie Sticks

One of our June couples, Phil and Marissa, opted the traditional photo booth for a selfie stick on each table at their outdoor bohemian-themed wedding. The sticks fit the vibe and allowed guests to take pics right at their table on their own time. Plus, with the speediness and popularity of social media today, guests could immediately post their selfies online with the couple’s wedding hashtag.

  1. Touchscreen

OK, so maybe you are a techie (hey, no shame there). If so, think about a touchscreen photo booth. Photo Creations has a special one that you can rent and essentially treat like a giant iPhone. Tap to take a pic, then draw pictures and words in colors on top of the photo like your SnapChat app before printing.

  1. Flipbook

Remember those little books you used to make in middle school (mainly of stick figures doing things) that you flipped really fast and it appeared like a moving picture? An L.A. based company called Flipbooth functions as an open-air photo booth that films for 6 seconds before splitting out your images into a miniature flipbook. Now, to get them to Jersey… (if anyone’s successful, let us know!)

 

Photo Booth Greeting Cards For Special Events, Birthdays, And Holidays

This unique photo booth pictures idea will warm somebody’s heart– especially if your photo booth picture is one of a kind! Got a bunch of wedding photo booth pictures? Make some thank you cards for your most beloved guests.

What about all of those photo booth shots of you and your best friend? Put together an unforgettable birthday card for them.

To start this adorable photo booth greeting card project, you will need:

  • Cardstock
  • Stickers
  • Pens
  • Glue
  • Photo corners

Start by placing your photobooth photo on the unprinted side of card stock. Determine how much space you want around your photo and at the bottom.

  • Get your measurements, and double it. Cut out the measured rectangle.
  • Put the photo corners onto the photo strip.
  • Fold the cardstock in half. On the front printed side, attach the photo strip to the paper. Make sure you’re using stronger glue for this one so it’ll last longer.
  • Embellish the front of the card with whatever you’d like.
  • Write a sweet message and sign the inside of your card.

 

Why photo booths have become so popular!

Photo booths have become so popular in the most recent years for all special occasions and here’s why:

  1. They are a great way to get your guests engaged and serves as an icebreaker at your event.
  2. Photo booths are so fun and it is a great source of entertainment for all your guests. No matter how old and young, everyone can let loose and get creative in the booths with all the props!
  3. Your guest will create memories they’ll get bring home as a keepsake from your event with just one snap
  4. You have the ability to customize the photos to match the theme of your events that can be used as a party favor.

Tips How To Use Hydro Jetting Service

Snaking vs Hydro Jetting: Which Drain Cleaning Should You Choose?

It’s important that your home’s water pipes work well at all times. These pipes are responsible for moving waste and dirty water away from your home. Unfortunately, when pipes get blocked, they can’t do their jobs. This has serious consequences for a residential plumbing system. If your home is experiencing problems with clogged pipes, you have two options: hydro-jet cleaning or snaking.

What Is Hydro-jet Cleaning?

Hydro-jetting, also referred to as water-jetting, is a specialized cleaning solution for drain and sewer pipes. It uses a high-pressure hose that has a special nozzle affixed on the end. The hose itself connects to a machine that directs pressurized water through the nozzle to clean and clear out congested sewer pipes.

Is Hydro-jetting Recommended for All Drain Clogs?

Some pipes aren’t strong enough to handle the force of hydro-jetting. In these cases, using a drain snake is better. Drain snake service uses a cable machine to clear clogs and is an affordable option. Hydro-jetting is best for serious clogs such as when there are tree roots in the sewer line or there is a massive clog that won’t respond to other methods.

Benefits of Hydro-jetting Service

Blocked sewer lines put the drains inside your home at risk of backing up and overflowing. Like it or not, the sewer pipes on your property are your responsibility to maintain. The easiest and most effective way to do this is to use hydro-jetting to clear serious clogs. The reason this method is popular and so effective is that it’s able to cut through virtually anything including wood, dried concrete, grease clinging to pipes, and those pesky tree roots. The pressurized water is powerful enough to pulverize nearly any material and wash it away and out of the pipe. Another benefit of hydro-jetting is that it cleans pipes thoroughly, leaving the pipes crystal clear and ready to stave off future clogs.

Benefits of the Drain Snake

The drain snake is a great option for small clogs that haven’t made it past the trap and deep into the line. It’s also a good option for homeowners who want to try to clear a clog before calling for professional drain cleaning services. Drain snakes, or hand augers, are available at home improvement stores and are a cost-effective, easy-to-use option for the average person.

 

Top Tips For Best Services in Hydro Jetting

Be it your residence or your commercial complex, you inevitably have a complex series of drain pipes. As the name tells, these pipes carry dirty water and other waste materials that increase the chance of getting these pipes clogged. Such situation can lead to severe situations that your residence or commercial property cannot tolerate. Obviously, it requires the best services to remove the wastes and keep the pipe clear and free-flowing.

Though you do not have any practical idea for such a service, you cannot find it difficult to understand that cleaning the clogged drain can never be an easy task. It is here that you start realizing the significance of the services for Hydro Jetting Seattle.

What is Hydro Jetting?

As far as the idea behind Hydro Jetting is concerned, you can take it as a technology that use a high-pressure flow of water to remove the waste that gets clogged in the drain pipes preventing it to carrying waste away from your home. The water is blown into the pipes using a machine that removes everything that gets clogged in the drain. Remember, it is the latest technique that has eased the process of drain cleaning everywhere in Seattle and rest of the USA. Since it has been tried and tested by hundreds of satisfied customers, therefore you may not have any doubts in the utilities of the technique.

Since the technology used in Hydro Jetting is yet to reach the common plumbing agencies, therefore the availability of the service is not that satisfying at the moment. Still, you must keep a few tips in your mind. Following are some of them:

Hire an agency for Hydro Jetting Seattle on personal recommendations. Please ensure that these recommendations can make your task easier as you do not need to crosscheck the credibility of the service providers.

 

Reasons to choose Hydro Jetting Sewer and Drain Pipe Cleaning

Slow draining water in the kitchen sink, frequent clogs in the toilet, stinky smells in the sinks, and unexplained gurgling sounds are all signs of a drainage system that need to be cleaned. Ignoring these problems can be very expensive and potentially hazardous to the family’s health so the owner will need to address these issues by hiring a professional plumbing company to take on this job. Though there are a number of different methods that can be used to clean a homes drains, some are considered to be better than others. Therefore, it is important for homeowners to do their homework prior to making a decision. Choosing the best drain process in the industry does not have to be difficult since homeowners have the option of using Hydro Jetting Sewer and Drain Pipe cleaning.

Cutting-Edge Technology

As technology advances, virtually every industry is experiencing changes that can completely revolutionize how things are being done. In fact, the old standards may be left light years behind as the new industry standards become the most prominent. In relation to hydro-jetting and its present role in sewer pipe cleaning, this method is not only effective, but it is also cutting edge technology. Therefore, using augers, plumbing snakes, rooter machines, and mechanical rodding is quickly become older technology, while hydro jetting pipe cleaning is quickly becoming the ultimate solution. This is because hydro jetting uses a huge amount of force to get rid of large debris, stuck tree roots, and grease accumulation that is stuck in sewer walls.

Eliminates Emergency Drain Problems

Even though a homeowner and their family may see all of the signs of needing drain cleaning services very clearly, they may not address these problems until they escalate. Meaning the owner may not contact a professional plumber until it is an emergency. Fortunately, when a homeowner contacts a plumber that has the hydro jetting equipment, the problems that they experience can be taken care of right away. In fact, it does not matter if these emergencies are discovered in a home, office or a restaurant, it is portable electric technology that can be transported wherever it is needed.

 

WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT HYDRO JETTING & SNAKING

When it comes to keeping your drains unclogged and your pipes clean, there are several options to choose from. Plumbers often use one of two solutions for clogs and pipe cleaning: plumbing snakes or hydro jetting. While plumbing snakes, or plumbing augers, are a more classic approach, hydro jetting offers an innovative solution for most pipe problems.

So what’s best for your situation? That depends on the problem! When a plunger just doesn’t cut it, you need something with a little more force to clear out a clog. That is when hydro jetting and snaking come into play. Each technique is useful for different types of clogs, so you want to make sure you have a qualified plumber handling your drain clog!

When Snaking Is Beneficial

Snaking a clogged drain is done with an auger, which looks like a long steel cable with a coil at the end of it. A plumber will insert the cable into the sewer line, using the coil at the end to break through any obstructions. This will clear up the gunk in your pipes and remove any clogs.

What are the main perks of this option?

Tried and true method – You know it works and does a solid job on most clogs because plumbers have been using it for decades.

Easy on the pipes – It is an undisruptive procedure for your pipes (but not the clogs), meaning if you have fragile pipes, this is a great option.

Tackles minor clogs easily – When there is just a minor clog to tackle, snaking can easily get the job done and give you back your drain.

Exposes plumbing dangers – Since a snake uses pressure to break through clogs, it can alert you to issues like tree roots in your pipes.

The bottom line is that cabling a pipeline with an auger is a proven method that can eliminate most basic clogs. However, there are downsides to this method as well. In most cases, snaking is just a temporary solution to pipe buildups, which means more clogs in the future. If you really want to eliminate the risk of clogs, you may want to go with a more powerful, innovative option.

 

Choosing The Right Jetter, GPM or PSI?

Pressure Cuts into blockages:

“Thinner” high-pressure waterjet streams from a good jetting nozzle will have the most ‘cutting’ power if the PSI is adequate; experience has shown that a 3500-4000psi jetter with 6 or more GPM and the right Warthog nozzle/tool WILL cut out root masses, chop up hard grease, and carve out hard settled dirt. We’ve shipped dozens of Jetters that do 9-gpm/4000psi for cutting out this kind of crud from 3″-8” drains and sewers. Pressure cuts is also why 4000psi trailer-mounted jetters at 18-gpm are so common with contractors who get paid to cut out blockages.  This is also why the little 1500psi electric-powered units don’t cut out much at all.

GPM (‘Volume’) flushes out debris:

“Wider” waterjet streams shooting out of a jetting nozzle will have the most ‘flushing’ action, and more volume is also more impact in the cleaning. If the GPM is adequate the sheer volume of water will push and carry debris. If you want to move larger rock/bricks/grease-logs, etc., you’ll need more GPM. This is why City & County crews clean 8-12” pipe with 40-60gpm, and larger pipelines with 80+gpm trucks. This is also why little 2gpm electric-jetters don’t flush out much debris. The GPM you will need depends greatly on the pipe diameter being cleaned and whether or not you really are required to flush/scour the line clean, or if you just need to penetrate a blockage to restore flow.

Example story from the field:

A story from a contractor that was hired by a City to video-inspect an 8” pipe: When he got there, the City crew had been working for 2 hours trying to clear roots from the line with their big 65gpm/2000psi jetting truck. The contractor had a 6-gpm/4000psi jetter in his van along with his TV System and the City let him take a crack at the roots. Using a “Warthog” Slow-Rotating Cutter-Nozzle, the contractor cleared the roots and then finished the video inspection. Notice that he got done with a 20-horsepower unit what the City could not do with a 100-horsepower unit. Why? Because (a) he had the right tools and (b) PRESSURE CUTS. The contractor said in the article “you should have seen their faces!” In contrast, it is important to also realize that if we were talking about clearing rocks and debris (instead of cutting roots) then the story would be the opposite; the 65-gpm truck would run circles around the 6-gpm jetter, because VOLUME FLUSHES.

Better Way To Using New Electric Circuits

How to Map House Electrical Circuits

Electricity travels in a circle. It moves along a “hot” wire toward a light or receptacle, supplies energy to the device (called a load), and then returns along the “neutral” wire (so-called because under normal conditions it’s maintained at 0 volts, or what is referred to as ground potential) to the source. This complete path is a circuit.

At the electrical panel, turn off all of the circuit breakers.

Identify any large, double (240-volt) circuit breakers first. Flip one on. Determine which major electrical appliance(s) it supplies by turning on each electrical appliance (don’t forget equipment such as the furnace and the pool pump) until you find the right one(s). Repeat with the other large circuit breakers and major appliances.

Have your helper plug a small lamp (or any small electrical device) into a standard room receptacle. Turn breakers on and off until you find the one that turns on the device. Leave that breaker on and have your helper plug the device into other receptacles; note all the ones controlled by that breaker.

Repeat this process, switching on room lights one by one, and note the circuit breaker that controls each set of lights.

 

Helpful Tips On Mapping Your House Electrical Circuits

Mapping your home’s circuits is essential for verifying which devices is connected to each circuit and is determined by shutting down the breakers one by one.

Understanding Your Circuits

Each electrical panel has electrical wiring that carries voltage running to and from the electrical outlets. Hotwiring transmits electricity from the breaker box to the electrical outlets, lights, and other devices. The neutral wiring carries the power back. When a breaker is flipped, a circuit is interrupted, making it safe to work on. The circuit map on your electrical panel will indicate the different circuits which are labeled “bathroom,” “living room” etc.

In some cases, light fixtures will be on one circuit and your wall outlets on another.

Where To Start

Mapping your electrical panel will require two persons, one at the board itself and the other on walking around, communicating with walkie-talkies or cell phones.

The circuit breakers must be clearly numbered before starting.

The person walking around must have a notepad, pen and outlet tester.

Switch on all lights, electronics, and appliances except for computers that need to be shut down correctly.

The person at the panel must start shutting down the breakers, one at a time, beginning with large double-pull breakers which control large appliances such as air conditioners, oven dryers, etc.

The person moving around should then check which lights or devices are deactivated by using the outlet tester. All nearby lights and outlets must be checked to confirm that they’re completely dead.

Take detailed notes every time you’ve determined what is running on a circuit. An extra helpful step would be to remove each switch plate and outlet cover and write the breaker number on the back of each before putting it back. This way, if an residential electrician needs to perform repair work, they can immediately see which breaker must be switched off.

 

Tips for Water Heater Circuits

Everyone enjoys a nice warm shower or bath and we all take hot water for granted when we shave or wash our dishes. In most parts of the modern world, a good water heater in an indispensable item. However, if a water heater is wired improperly or installed on a circuit that can’t handle the load, it can be dangerous. A water heater is also filled with water under pressure and is powered by electricity and as we all know, water and electricity do no mix. If something goes wrong with the water heater, it can become a life-threatening situation. Also, if installed improperly, the pressure inside the water heater can turn it into a big bomb essentially, waiting to damage your home and cause injuries. Knowing all this, it is easy to understand why having your water heater wired properly and installed correctly is very important.

House voltage in Australia is normally between 220v and 240v and the electrical wiring and main breaker for the water heater should be about 30 amps, or more depending on the requirements of the heater you select. Some Water heaters may use more and some may use less but the circuit that supports the water heater should normally be rated at about 30 amps. This will insure that you can install most types of home water heaters and not surpass the rating of the circuit. You don’t want to install a circuit that can support exactly the maximum requirement of the water heater. You want the circuit to be rated higher than the water heater so there is no chance it may overload. Most smaller items that are used near water need to be plugged into outlets that have ground fault circuit interrupters (GFCI) otherwise known as residual current devices (RCD). An RCD safety switch must be installed with your hot water-heater to keep it safe incase somehow the electrical components contact the water. An RCD will interrupt the power and protect the people using the water if something goes wrong.

 

Electricity: Electric Circuits

Electric Circuits: Problem Set Overview

This set of 34 problems targets your ability to determine circuit quantities such as current, resistance, electric potential difference, power, and electrical energy from verbal descriptions and diagrams of physical situations pertaining to electric circuits. Problems range in difficulty from the very easy and straight-forward to the very difficult and complex. The more difficult problems are color-coded as blue problems.

Current

When charge flows through the wires of an electric circuit, current is said to exist in the wires. Electric current is a quantifiable notion which is defined as the rate at which charge flows past a point on the circuit. It can be determined by measuring the quantity of charge that flows past a cross-sectional area of a wire on the circuit. As a rate quantity, current (I) is expressed by the following equation

where Q is the quantity of charge flowing by a point in a time period of t. The standard metric unit for the quantity current is the ampere, often abbreviated as Amps or A. A current of 1 ampere is equivalent to 1 Coulomb of charge flowing past a point in 1 second. Since the quantity of charge passing a point on a circuit is related to the number of mobile charge carriers (electrons) which flow past that point, the current can also be related to the number of electrons and the time. To make this connection between the current and the number of electrons, one must know the quantity of charge on a single electron.

Resistance

As charge flows through a circuit, it encounters resistance or a hindrance to its flow. Like current, resistance is a quantifiable term. The quantity of resistance offered by a section of wire depends upon three variables – the material the wire is made out of, the length of the wire, and the cross-sectional area of the wire. One physical property of a material is its resistivity – a measure of that material’s tendency to resist charge flow through it. Resistivity values for various conducting materials are typically listed in textbooks and reference books. Knowing the resistivity value (ρ) of the material the wire is composed of and its length (L) and cross-sectional area (A), its resistance (R) can be determine using the equation below.

 

STC Program: Electric Circuits, 3rd Edition

In Electric Circuits, students investigate electricity by wiring a circuit to light a bulb and learn that a circuit must form a complete circle through which electric current can pass in order to light the bulb. They explore other electrical concepts, such as what conductors and insulators are and how they work. Students also learn about the symbolic language of electricity and use it to read and draw diagrams for wiring circuits and constructing a flashlight.

Post Construction Cleaning For Fresh Cleaning

Construction Cleaning Offers Fresh Start

This important project step helps remove harmful dust and residue

The debut of a new office is extremely important. A tremendous amount of time, money and effort goes into new builds and remodels, so having them shine, when completed, is critical.

But it isn’t just aesthetics that are important. Post-construction dust can be harmful to the health of the building’s occupants and settles on furnishings, carpet, wall hangings, windows and fittings, sanitary fittings, walls, hard surfaces and tile floors. The residue left after construction is hard to remove, requiring special equipment, products and expertise.

Despite even the best efforts of the contractor, construction dust will make its way into a building’s ductwork, which, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), can exacerbate lung conditions such as asthma. Additionally, materials that contain fibers, such as fiberglass composite materials or insulation, can irritate the skin, eyes and respiratory tract when dispersed in the air. Also, if left untreated, these particulates can have an impact on all building occupants during flu and allergy seasons.

For all of these reasons, contractors usually rely on professionals that offer post-construction cleaning services. Post-construction cleaning professionals will scope the job properly and use the required equipment and products, which typical janitorial staff may not have on hand, to remove the dirt and residue completely and provide a clean and safe environment for the building’s occupants. Post-construction cleaning professionals are also required to carry insurance in case there are any issues.

In most instances cleaning would include high-powered vacuuming with a backpack in order to remove drywall dust from the premise, carpet cleaning, glass cleaning and damp wiping of walls and other surfaces with microfibre clothes. If new vinyl tile was installed, it may need a coat of wax. Therefore, it is important to scope the work properly to ensure that the proper tasks are completed.

A construction environment is one of constantly changing schedules, so it is important that cleaning takes place quickly and efficiently in order to meet critical timelines for the project. In some cases, cleaning is required periodically throughout the project; therefore, coordination or adaptive scheduling with the other trades and quick turn-around service is imperative.

What to expect

Exterior cleaning requirements

Depending on the extent of a renovation project, or with a new build, exterior cleaning services may be required. Walkways, entryways and outside common areas are the first thing that visitors will notice. Sweeping, power washing and wipe downs of all exterior fixtures are essential for creating a great first impression.

Interior cleaning requirements

Construction dust and residue hides in many unknown places. It’s important to find these areas and quickly restore carpets, floors, windows and other surface areas through thorough and detailed cleaning procedures. Tasks should include:

  • High-level dusting
  • Cleaning and sanitizing air diffusers and ducts, light fixtures, restroom fixtures, windows and fittings, walls and hard-surface areas
  • Vacuuming and full restoration cleaning of carpets
  • New hard-floor finishing or pre-existing floor refinishing
  • Removal of debris and hazardous materials

When the dust settles

Whether an organization is considering an office renovation or is in the middle of one, post-construction cleaning should be a key project consideration. Post-construction cleaners will work with the construction contractor to keep the job site clean throughout the renovation process, or, depending on the extent of the project, they can come in when the trades have completed their work.

Construction and renovation projects can shut down an office or other commercial space for months at a time, which can negatively impact business. A professional cleaning will make a space spotless and improve indoor air quality for employees, tenants and customers as quickly as possible to prevent any further disruption to the operation of a company.

 

How to Clean Up After a Major Renovation

Renovations are notoriously messy affairs. No one wants to find that ubiquitous construction dust on a high shelf weeks after the fact. Not only is it unpleasant, it might also be harmful to you, as well as any pets and/or tiny humans you have walking around. Prevention is key, so take a look first at our guide to minimizing the mess during your renovation. Then, read on down right here for a look at how to clean up after renovation.

Unless you explicitly build it into your contract, extensive cleaning is typically not part of your contractor’s job. The industry standard is “broom-swept,” which usually involves vacuuming up larger bits of debris and then running a Swiffer across surfaces. Some contractors may also wipe things down with wet rags. Anything beyond this (including cleaning up common spaces such as hallways and elevators) will need to be specifically arranged, and will most likely incur additional costs that you’ll bear as the homeowner.

Clean-up Services

Whether you moved out or stayed put in your home during the renovation process, you’ll need to arrange for a deep post-construction clean up once that last drawer pull is attached and the final coat of paint applied. Homeowners can undertake the deep clean themselves or outsource it to one of the many companies that focus on this service. Thumbtack shared that the cost of a deep clean isn’t necessarily determined by the size of a space, but rather the level of effort. A 1,400-square foot duplex apartment ranged from $900 to $1,500, while prices ranged from $1,800 to $3,000 for a 2,800-square foot house.

Clean-up Steps

Usually, a post-construction clean up will include the following:

  • sweep and vacuum all surfaces, including ceilings, walls
  • sweep, mop, and disinfect floors
  • vacuum all upholstery
  • wipe down doors, knobs, baseboards, moldings, and hardware
  • thorough wipe-down and sanitization of bathrooms and kitchens (including appliances, cabinets, and counters)
  • dust, vacuum, and wipe-down of all window interiors including sills and frames
  • dust all ducts, grates, vents, blinds, ceiling fans, and lighting fixtures
  • clean all hardware such as hinges and handles
  • clean inside and outside of shelves and cabinets
  • clean inside all closets
  • removal of all remaining trash and debris (although your contractor should have removed most of this as part of the contract)

Tools, Supplies and Equipment needed

Post construction clean up services requires the appropriate cleaning tools, supplies and equipment in order to provide the customer with the best quality outcome.

This type of cleaning can be tough and exhausting, to say the least. It usually involves long hard hours of demanding physical activity and heavy lifting, all of which require paying close attention to the details. That’s why experience, know how, and a broad selection of the correct tools, supplies and equipment is vital to get the job done as quickly and efficiently as possible.

The post construction cleaning process and completion times can range from a single day to several months, depending on the scope of work. You have probably heard the phrase; “the right tool for the right job”, it’s true when it comes to production and providing quality cleaning.

Make sure you choose quality tools, supplies, and equipment and choose wisely. Having the “right ones” for your cleaning technicians will certainly make their job easier and you will have a more productive crew on site.

Following is a list of some of the tools, supplies, and equipment that may be required to perform post construction cleaning efficiently and effectively:

  • heavy duty trash bags
  • brooms (preferably both corn broom and push broom)
  • dust pans
  • shop vacuum, heavy duty vacuum cleaner and/or back pack vacuum
  • upholstery cleaning tools
  • mop bucket and wringer
  • mop heads
  • buckets
  • hoses
  • scrub brushes and scrub pads
  • rubber gloves
  • protective eyewear
  • dust masks
  • hard hats
  • safety signs
  • microfiber cloths
  • putty knives
  • window washing equipment (window bucket, golden glove or strip washer, squeegee, extra rubber blades, scrapers or razor blades, #0000 steel wool, extension poles)
  • step ladders
  • extension ladders
  • ladder bumpers
  • brute
  • tilt truck/utility duty cart (5/8 cubic yard capacity)
  • industrial garbage bins
  • cleaning chemicals (neutral cleaners, stainless steel cleaner, all-purpose cleaner, wood, metal, stone, window cleaner)
  • hard floor and carpet maintenance supplies (floor stripper, floor finish, carpet pre-spray’s, detergents, spotters, protectors, rinses, deodorizers)

Heavy Equipment Requirements

Larger jobs may require the use of heavy duty equipment that you can purchase or rent. This equipment may include:

  • scissor lift (for second story/multi-level facilities or high level ceilings and structures)
  • pressure washer
  • water/sludge extractor
  • vapor steam cleaner
  • floor machines like auto scrubbers, burnishers and sweepers
  • ultrasonic cleaners (for cleaning blinds, chandeliers, artificial plants, fire restoration, or just about anything that will fit in the tank) to name just a few.

As you can see, the list of tools, supplies, and equipment needed deliver on post construction clean up services can be endless, but so too are the opportunities.

 

Best Way To Remove Construction Dust After Renovation (5 Top Steps)

  1. Gather Materials

Having the proper materials to remove construction dust is key because it will help you get it done more quickly and it helps to have these materials on hand, so you can clean as you go about the remodel.

  • Air filters
  • Used dryer sheets
  • Broom
  • Tape
  • HEPA vacuum cleaner
  • Cleaner meant for your floor type
  • Mop
  1. Check + Replace Air Filters

One of the first tips on how to clean construction dust is to clean and check air filters around your home. This will allow you to trap dust before it enters the air ducts. Check the filters often and replace them after you are done with the construction project. Doing this will ensure that your home is safe for you and your family. Doing this will also remove any of the trapped dust that has accumulated in the filters. We love using BuildClean, which is an air filter cleaner, but it’s different from the usual dust fans and vacuums. It minimizes the migration of dust throughout a home during remodel by “scrubbing” the air that passes through it.

  1. Dust Walls

If your question is how to clean construction dust from walls, you will need to wipe your walls with a soft damp towel and then wrap it around the bottom of your broom. Secure it with tape if you have to and then push the towel along your walls to collect dust and to wipe it away. Using a broom handle will help when trying to reach the top of your walls. If your walls were painted recently, then you should avoid using anything moist on them as it may damage the paint itself. Let the walls dry for about 30 days before you are sure you won’t do any damage and then you can use moisture to remove the excess dust.

  1. Ledges + Baseboards

When it comes to ledges and baseboards, you can make use of used dryer sheets to collect dust. Dryer sheets that have been through the dryer once will still collect dust very well, just wipe them across the baseboards and ledges and toss them in the garbage when you’re done. Ledges and baseboards are on the places where construction dust likes to build up, so even after your remodel is done, continue to wipe them off. Another method that we like to remove the dust from ledges and baseboards is using Norwex dusting rags because they work really well and are very environment friendly.

  1. Floors

When it comes to floors, you should vacuum them if your vacuum is HEPA certified with a good filter. Mopping regularly will also help to keep the dust under control when the job is done. This will allow you to handle floor cleaning and general house cleaning as well. Make sure to use a floor cleaner that is compatible with your floors and won’t ruin them or remove the stain. Ask your supplier or installer what cleaning supply they would recommend for your floors.

And there ya have it! Our tips and tricks on how to get rid of construction dust so that your home is clean and safe for your family.

 

POST CONSTRUCTION & RENOVATION CLEANING: AFTER THE DUST SETTLES

After finishing a home renovation project, you’re ready to sit back and enjoy your new space, right? Not so fast. Before you can kick up your feet, you need to complete a post-construction cleaning marathon. Your primary focus should be removing all the dust that results from construction before it ends up in your air ducts. Almost all home improvement projects produce dust particles that somehow sneak into every nook and cranny of the space you’ve so carefully renovated. Don’t let layers of dust leave your freshly renovated home looking old and dingy. Strap on a protective mask and use this handy post-construction cleaning checklist from ServiceMaster Clean to put the finishing touches on your beautiful new space.

 

POST-CONSTRUCTION CLEANING CHECKLIST

  1. Vacuum Carpets & Upholstery

It’s all too easy for dust and dirt particles to embed themselves in curtains, upholstered furniture and carpeted floors. If allowed to settle after construction, the result can not only look filthy, but also cause itchy, irritating reactions for friends, family or guests. Vacuum all soft surfaces, paying close attention to the details. Remove and vacuum each furniture cushion, and the underlying frames. Try vacuuming twice if you feel any residual dust after the first round.

  1. Wipe Down Hard Surfaces

Clean surfaces from the top down. Start by wiping the dust off your walls – yes, even your walls collect dust during construction. Dry dusting is the safest way to remove the particles without damaging a wall’s surface, but a damp cloth can also be used depending on your type of paint or wall covering. Refer to the paint or wallpaper manufacturer before using any moisture, and test a small area before proceeding. Moldings and cabinets are another favorite resting spot for dust particles. Take a duster to these areas next. Clean the interior shelves of all cabinets, paying special attention to those hard-to-reach corners. Wipe off countertops and any other flat surfaces before tackling the dirt and debris that’s on or near the floor. Then, sweep out any visible dust, and mop your hard floors from wall to wall.

  1. Clean Air Vents & Replace Filters

In a large home renovation project means, dust and debris will mingle with the air itself, making its way to your vents. Even if you only renovated one part of your home, treating the air vents and filters in that space is critical to reduce the amount of dust that can spread through the rest of your home. Remove the vent covers from the surrounding walls and ceilings, clean each one with soap and warm water, and let them dry thoroughly. Replace any exposed air filters with fresh ones before replacing the vent covers. Breathing dusty air can lead to allergies and respiratory issues, so remember not to skip this step!

  1. Don’t Forget About the Little Things

Clean any other furniture or items in the renovation zone for a fully dust-free living space. Here’s a quick list of commonly overlooked areas:

  • Ceiling fan blades
  • Light fixtures
  • Lamp shades
  • Electronics
  • Small appliances
  • Decorative items